This particular chart located in the Protagonist’s status menu displays the character’s Courage, Diligence, Understanding, Expression, and Knowledge. These social qualities are very important to the visual novel part of the game. You will not be able to access select dialogue choices, part-time jobs, or even social links until a quality is high enough.
Each of the five social qualities can be leveled up by performing various tasks throughout the game. Performing the task will provide a small boost towards the level of the quality. All social qualities can leveled up five times. Starting a New Game + file will carry the social qualities over, but starting a New Game will reset these stats.
To see these five Social Qualities, click the “Status” Option from the menu in game, click the Protagonist’s status, then click “Switch Info,” which should be the Square Button.