The sixth generation introduced Super Training, allowing you to increase your Pokemon’s effort values using punching bags, similar to using vitamins such as Protein and Iron. Now Pokemon Sun and Moon introduces Hyper Training.
The information before the game’s release is a bit unclear, but it appears you can increase your Pokemon’s “individual strength” beyond level 100. To do this, you must give Bottle Caps to a man named Mr. Hyper somewhere in the Alola region. More information will be posted here at a later date.